How to test devices in Indoors

There are few simple steps to test devices  in indoor environment or with very short distance between them.

To test devices with N connectors use RF cables with 50 – 60 dB attenuators.

Do not Mix V and H polarizations

If devices have integrated antennas tests should not be performed indoors because it will not give good results from signal reflections.  If you are testing devices indoors, follow these steps to minimize possible damage to the devices:

Step 1. Set tx power to 0.

Step 2. Signal levels should be around -50dBm

Signal levels higher than -25 dBm could damage radio hardware elements 

Step 3. If signal levels at tx power 0 are still too high, place devices out of clear line of sight or place cardboard or foam between the devices, another option to point both devices to ceilings.

 

 

Why PoE adapter led is blinking

Power source LED usually blinks when there is a problem  with the radio circuit.

If a new PoE does not help, change the radio with new one.

Contact your distributor for unit repair.

Wireless network planning

There are some main rules in wireless network planning for hotspots.  In 2.4 GHz there are only 3 non overlapping channels: 1, 6, and 11. All large wireless networks could be built from many clusters.  One network cluster is formed from 3 different frequency cells. One cell is served by one access point.

 

cels1

Adjacent frequencies have to be different and separated by one neighboring frequency this is important aspect in wireless network planning. This type of network planning helps avoid interference and improves link quality. On the 5 GHz wifi network more frequency channels  are used. This helps to improve network quality by choosing adjacent frequencies that are separated by two or three neighboring frequencies. 5 Ghz network clusters could be made from 7 or more different frequency cells.

Choosing the number of users managed by one AP you have to know required throughput. Throughput is dependent on number of users connected to Base station. In ideal conditions AP could give 180Mb/s with 30 stations connected. The throughput per station would be 6Mb/s simplex and 3Mb/s duplex.

……………………….

Wireless Bridge and ARPNAT

A bridge is a device that separates two or more network segments within one logical network (e.g. a single IP-subnet). The job of the bridge is to examine the destination of the data packets one at a time and decide whether or not to pass the packets to the other side of the Ethernet segment. The result is a faster, quieter network with less collisions.  In the OSI model bridging acts in the first two layers, below the network layer.

ARPNAT has similar idea as NAT for IP networks, except that NAT works one layer deeper. Instead of translating IP addr, the router translates between the MAC hardware addr on side of it.If something on the wired side of the router makes an ARP request for the MAC address of an IP on the wireless side, then the router forwards the request as if it came from the router. When the response comes back, it mangles that too. Instead of passing back the real MAC (which lives on the wireless network), the router gives its own wired MAC address. Then, when it receives frames for IP addresses on the wireless network, it forwards them through. It does this to both sides of the bridge.

ARPNAT example would be like so:

1. Client PC asks what is the MAC addr of 192.168.1.67. Tell to 192.168.1.5. This is a broadcast ARP request over the wired eth.
2. APC 5M (works as STA), see the ARP request and forwards the broadcast onto the wireless network as “What is MAC addr of 192.168.1.67. Tell to 192.168.1.66 (this is APC 5M ip, remember that client had 192.168.1.5, so it’s changed now).
3. APC 5M (works as AP) which has ip 192.168.1.67 responses with results which is sent to 192.168.1.66. Result can be for example “00:19:23:66:12:56”.
4. APC 5M (works as STA) gets the response. In does some modifications and sends that request back to Client PC as 192.168.1.67 is at “00:12:23:55:66:77”, this MAC is the MAC addr of the APC 5M (STA) itself.
5. So if client wants to talk with AP it will talk with APC 5M (STA), which will forward those frames to AP.

When a bridge is installed between two networks, it gathers the packets from one network and repeats them at the other and vice-versa. This way, nodes on one network can talk to nodes on the other. Bridges also have such features as broadcast filtering to allow for greater efficiency and reduce traffic. Therefore, in its most simple form, a bridge is a two-port network device that connects two network segments. Some advanced implementation of bridging can monitor traffic and determine which nodes are on which segment and later use this information while forwarding packets. A main factor to note is the fact that bridging takes place in the Data-link Layer of the OSI reference model.

DMZ configuration

How to configure DMZ

Step 1. Setup wireless mode. In this presentation will be used Access Point (Auto WDS).

DMZ1

Step 2. Configure It as a Router. Choose Router mode and set IP addresses for DHCP server and addresses for device wired WAN.

DMZAP2

Step 3. At Port Forwarding tab, there’s an option “DMZ”. At DMZ “IP address section” enter the LAN IP which you want to reach via DMZ.

DMZRouter1

The main function is avaibility to reach LOCAL LAN devices from WAN when all ports are redirected to specified to one IP ADDR (I.E. 192.168.3.1).

How to test:

Step 1. In order to test DMZ function, two laptops or computers are needed, in our case they will be called PC1 and PC2.

Step 2. PC1 should be connected to WAN port of the device with ip from 2 subnet, in our case in was 192.168.2.90. PC2 LAN IP ADDRs will be provided from device dhcp server from subnet “3”. Our case it’s 192.168.3.1

Step 3. After first two steps are completed, we tried to access our access point from PC1 on 192.168.2.66, however DMZ function here applies and we were redirected to LAN subnet ip addr 192.168.3.1 which we entered.

How to find OID’s

In order to find all OID’s from selected device the Net-SNMP package and SNMP-walk tool is required.

For Windows users

Step 1. Download it from website and install: Net-SNMP

Step 2. Open cmd command prompt window and run command:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v2c 192.168.2.66

SNMPwalk1

Step 3. There is command to use external MIB’s:

snmpwalk.exe -c public -v2c 192.168.2.66 MIB [MIB name]

SNMPWALKMIBS1

Download Deliberant MIBs here: Download MIBs

 For Linux users

Step 1. Install SNMP packages:

apt-get install snmp

Step 2. Open terminal and run command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v2c

Step 3. To add external MIBs use below provided command:

snmpwalk 192.168.2.66 -c public -v2c -m /home/DELIBERANT-MIB

Download Deliberant MIBs here: Download MIBs

 

Data rate fallback and Auto data rate

Dynamic algorithm

Dynamic algorithm (Auto data rate) – data rate is selected automatically by the mechanism that evaluates current performance of device based on current signal level, data packets retries rate, and other parameters. Data rate fallback in Normal mode drops MCS step by step until the data can be passed. When data rate fallback is set to aggressive MCS is decreased by 2 steps until it could pass the data. Dynamic algorithm and Aggressive fallback have to be used in noisy environments.

ddataratedynamicaggresive4

Fixed algorithm

Fixed algorithm- data rate is a fixed value (MCS). The main difference between dynamic algorithm and fixed algorithm is that fixed algorithm always will try to send data at selected MCS rather then decreasing the currently selected MCS to value where retry rate is lower. Fixed algorithm does not take into account signal level or amount of retried packets.  The data rate is only decreased when device can’t send the current data at fixed data rate. In this case the data rate fallback mechanism turns on. Data rate fallback in Normal mode drops MCS step by step until the data can be passed. When data rate fallback is set to aggressive MCS is decreased by 2 steps until it could pass the data. Fixed data rate is best suited for operation in clean radio environments.

dataratefixedaggressive2

 

 

Signal noise ratio (SNR)

 

SNR – displays the Signal noise ratio in dB.
SNR range varies from 1 to 30. Optimal SNR range starts from 18 to 30. 18 is the minimum at which device can still operate at rather optimal performance, any lower values than 18 can reduce the performance drastically. On devices SNR is reported for each chain (V and H polarizations). If only one antenna is connected, SNR reported values will be 20/1 or 1/20. The maximum SNR value is 30 which indicates the best quality of the link, so anything that is beyond 18-20 means that link is working properly. Anything below those values, can indicate that there is interference or the selected settings aren’t best suited for current radio environment.

SNR2

If one of SNR values is equal to 1, it usually means that no data is passed through the second antenna polarization (that usually happens when there is no traffic present on the link) or the rssi is very bad on that polarization.

Example of bad link quality and SNR
BadSNR1

First time login to APC device

Default  IP address of the Deliberant APC  is: 192.168.2.66
Default Login/Password for Deliberant APC is: admin/admin01

Follow the steps to access the Deliberant APC device for the first time:

Step 1.    Configure your PC with a static IP address on the 192.168.2.0 subnet (e.g. 192.168.2.10 with mask 255.255.255.0).

Step 2.   Open your Web browser and enter the default IP address of the AP device 192.168.2.66 :

 default-ip

Step 3.    After the login page has been loaded, enter default administrator login settings admin/admin01 and click Login :

Login

Step 4.     Confirm the disclaimer of the Deliberant APC. According to the chosen country, the regulatory domain settings may differ. You are not allowed to select radio channels and RF output power values other than the permitted values for your country and regulatory domain:

Disclaimer

 

How to upgrade firmware?

It is highly recommended to use firmware images of the same version for successful link performance between APC units.

How to upgrade firmware properly on deliberant equipment. Follow the steps to upgrade your device firmware:

Step 1.      To update your device firmware, navigate to the System | Firmware upgrade menu:

Apc-fw-update1

Step 2.     Press Upload firmware, select the firmware file from your computer:

Apc-fw-update2

Step 3.     After the firmware was successfully uploaded on the APC device, click the Upgrade button:

Apc-fw-update3

Do not switch off and do not disconnect the device from the power supply during the firmware upgrade process as the device could be damaged.

How to download Troubleshooting file?

The Troubleshooting file is extremely useful for support team as it contains valuable information about device configuration, routes, log files, command outputs, and other important information.

Follow the steps to download Troubleshooting file via GUI:

Step 1.       Login to the APC GUI via Web browser:

Login

Step 2.      To download troubleshooting file, navigate to the System | Administration menu:

Apc-troubleshooting-file1

Step 3.    Simply click the Download troubleshooting file button:

Apc-troubleshooting-file2

Step 4.  The Troubleshooting file has been successfully downloaded on your computer:

Apc-troubleshooting-file3

How to discover all Deliberant devices in network?

Reset Tool allows administrators to discover all Deliberant devices in local network and restore the devices easily to their default configuration.
Follow the steps for Deliberant device discovery on the network:

Step 1.    Download the Reset Tool locally to your computer from the official Deliberant site:  http://www.deliberant.com/reset-tool.

Step 2.   Run executable file and the Reset Tool will be loaded.

reset-tool-initial

Step 3.    Click Scan button to search all Deliberant devices on your network:

reset-tool-initial-scan

Step 4.    The Reset Tool displays Deliberant devices on your network. Scanned devices now  are ready for managing:

reset-tool-results

How to reset device to defaults via LAN?

The only way to gain access to the web management if you forget the administrator password is to reset your APC  configuration to factory default settings. 
The computer with the  Reset Tool running and the APC device must be physically connected into the same LAN network via SWITCH

Follow the steps to run the Deliberant Reset Tool and reset device to the factory defaults:

The Java package must be installed on operating system for Reset Tool.
In order to reset, the Reset Tool must be run with administrative privileges.

Linux OS

The following package should be installed by running command (ubuntu/debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

 After that click right mouse button on Reset Tool and select run “Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime”

Windows 7 OS

The shortcut with the following data must be created on Windows 7 OS:

General path: %ProgramFiles%\Java\jre6\bin\java.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre7\bin\java.exe" -jar "C:\Users\tester\Desktop\reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
reset-admin

After the shortcut has been created it must be executed with administrative privileges by clicking with the right mouse button and selected option “Run as Administrator”.

Reset Tool allows administrators to restore the devices easily to their default configuration. Follow the steps to reset device to the defaults:

Step 1.    Download the Reset Tool locally to your computer from the official Deliberant site:  http://www.deliberant.com/reset-tool.

Step 2.   Run executible file and the Reset Tool will be loaded:

reset-tool

Step 3.    Click Scan button to search all Deliberant devices on your network:

reset-device-1

Step 4.   Select the device and press the Reset button:

reset-device-2

Step 5.   Reset tool alerts the administrator to perform the physical device power off/on:

reset-device-3

Step 6.   Power off and then power on the device physically.

 

Step 7.   The device now will wait for the special reset packet. Upon special packet received, the APC device will wait for 300 seconds to confirm the reset procedure:

reset-device-4

Step 8.     Power off and power on device physically again.

 

Step 9.    The APC device reboots and performs the reset to defaults:

reset-device-5

Step 10.  The APC device is successfully reset to the factory defaults.

reset-device-6

Step 11.  The APC device now has factory default settings. Right-click on the appropriate device and launch GUI:

reset-device-7

Default  IP address of the Deliberant APC  is: 192.168.2.66
Default Login/Password for Deliberant APC is: admin/admin01

Ipoll protocol

Print

 

Intelligent polling (Ipoll protocol) is a proprietary wireless mechanism, customized for best performance in harsh environments. The bandwidth allocation between Master and Slave devices is managed by the Master. The Master device polls each Slave device sequentially. The Slave device only transmits the data “upstream” to the Master device when the Master device gives authorization via a “transmit grant”.  On Ipoll, slower connections won’t limit the speed for users who have better options to get maximum throughput. The reason for this is the mechanism, that works in multi-point scenarios.  When there are clients who have no or very few packets to send, AP skips them and moves to the faster clients (have more data to send).  So based on this, users that have better signal levels (and less interference) maximize their performance, while others who run on low modulations are limited by AP.  Ipoll implements  airtime fairness mechanism by letting faster users  send more data then slower users, which means faster users usually will have more time for sending/receiving data. So based on this, total throughput will be higher. This is achieved by using token mechanism between AP and Station. Token includes all the sensitive control data for each device connected to the AP.

IGMP snooping

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping is the process of listening to IGMP network traffic. IGMP snooping can significantly reduce traffic from streaming media and other bandwidth-intensive IP multicast applications. With (IGMP) snooping devices can make intelligent multicast forwarding decisions by reducing network capacity requirements.

When do you need to enable IGMP snooping ?

For example, you have a network which has an AP and several CPEs:

multipoint

And you are providing an IPTV service to your clients. When a client decides to watch the IPTV, the multicast traffic carrying tv data goes not only to the subscriber, but also to the rest of CPEs connected to the AP.  This multicast flooding will reduce network bandwidth for the clients behind other CPEs. To avoid flooding  the entire network, enable IGMP snooping on the AP (Configuration->Network tab). Then Multicast data will be send to the subscriber only.

 

 

How to test packet pass through

In order to find out the maximum packet size, which can be sent between devices, the following steps should be performed:

Equipment for testing:

1. Linux PC 1 and Linux PC 2 (cisco switches can be used also instead of PCs)
After connecting wireless link, make sure that ping works by sending small packets by using command:

ping remote_device_ip

MTU-testing1

If receiving ping response, change Linux PCs Ethernet interface mtu size by using this command:

ifconfig eth0 mtu 4000
Might require root privileges (on Ubuntu, use “sudo”)

In our example our network interface is called “eth0”, however on different machines it can be “eth1” or similar.
After changing mtu value on both Linux PCs, run the ping command with atttributes “-M do” in order to send the packet without fragmentation, because by default ping does fragmentation. On remote Linux PC you can run “tcpdump” tool. Check the screenshot below:

MTU-Testing2

 

 

How to reset administrator’s password?

The only way to gain access to the web management if you forget the administrator password is to reset your APC  configuration to factory default settings. 
The computer with the  Reset Tool running and the APC device must be physically connected into the same LAN network via SWITCH

Follow the steps to run the Deliberant Reset Tool and reset device to the factory defaults:

The Java package must be installed on operating system for Reset Tool.
In order to reset, the Reset Tool must be run with administrative privileges.

Linux OS

The following package should be installed by running command (ubuntu/debian version):

sudo apt-get install sun-java6-jre

 After that click right mouse button on Reset Tool and select run “Open with Sun Java 6 Runtime”

Windows 7 OS

The shortcut with the following data must be created on Windows 7 OS:

General path: %ProgramFiles%\Java\jre6\bin\java.exe" -jar "%HOMEPATH%/Desktop/reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
Example: "C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre7\bin\java.exe" -jar "C:\Users\tester\Desktop\reset-tool.en.v1.2.45019.20121109.2143.jar
reset-admin

After the shortcut has been created it must be executed with administrative privileges by clicking with the right mouse button and selected option “Run as Administrator”.

Step 1.    Download the Reset Tool locally to your computer from the official Deliberant site:  http://www.deliberant.com/reset-tool.

Step 2.   Run the executable file and the Reset Tool will be loaded:

reset-tool

Step 3.    Click Scan button to search all Deliberant devices on your network:

reset-device-1

Step 4.   Select the device and press the Reset button:

reset-device-2

Step 5.   Reset tool alerts the administrator to perform the physical device power off/on:

reset-device-3

Step 6.   Power off and then power on the device physically.

 

Step 7.   The device now will wait for the special reset packet. Upon special packet received, the APC device will wait for 300 seconds to confirm the reset procedure:

reset-device-4

Step 8.     Power off and power on device physically again.

 

Step 9.    The APC device reboots and performs the reset to defaults:

reset-device-5

Step 10.  The APC device is successfully reset to the factory defaults.

reset-device-6

Step 11.  The APC device now has factory default settings. Right-click on the appropriate device and launch GUI:

reset-device-7

Default  IP address of the Deliberant APC  is: 192.168.2.66
Default Login/Password for Deliberant APC is: admin/admin01

How to configure Point to Multi-Point?

This article provides information how to create bridged Point to Multi-Point using iPoll or 11N.

Recommended station amount is up to 32 
In a bridged (layer 2) network it is recommended to use WDS for 11n (compatible with other vendors) or to use iPoll (between APC devices)

PTMP-diagram

Step 1.     Configure network settings on master (AP) device: change device’s IP address (can be static or dynamic), enable IP alias if necessary:

ptmp-step1

 

Optionally configure settings at System->Administration page: device name, device location, coordinates (especially if you use WNMS), username and password.

 

Step 2.     Configure wireless  settings for iPoll master:

- Select wireless mode: Access Point iPoll
- Define SSID
- Set channel to “Auto”
- Enable Security if necessary
all other settings should be kept default:
ptmp-step2-1
                   Configure wireless settings for 11N AP:
- Select wireless mode: Access point (auto WDS)
– Define SSID
– Choose IEEE mode:
N if you use 802.11n capable radios
A/N mixed or B/G/N mixed if you also use legacy radios in your network
– Set channel to “Auto”
– Leave ATPC enabled
– Enable Security if necessary
– Set ACK timeout based on the maximum distance from the station, using the slide:
ptmp-step2-2
Step 3.     Configure network settings on Station: change device’s IP address (can be static or dynamic), enable IP alias if necessary:
ptmp-step3
Optionally configure settings at System->Administration page: device name, device location, coordinates (especially if you use WNMS), username and password.
Step 4.     Configure wireless  settings for Station (auto iPoll):
- Select country code
- Select wireless mode: iPoll Station

According to access point:

- Define SSID
- Enable Security if necessary
 with Station (autp iPoll) wireless mode the APC will act as an Station and will automatically turn on iPoll mode if detects that selected AP is an Access Point iPoll.
ptmp-step4
Step 5.    Monitor the connection.
Observe signal levels at Access point and at Station. Recommended signal level range is from -35 to -60 dBm.
The Access point side: navigate to the Status|Wireless page:
ptmp-step5-1
The Station side: navigate to the Status|Information page:
ptmp-step5-2
If device is MIMO, there are two signal streams. One of them is called “Main”, another  “Aux”
Step 6.   For the best performance, optimize the channel size.
 Before changing auto channel to some particular channel it is recommended to do the scan on AP and on Station (Tools|Site survey) and run a Spectrum analyzer. Try to find the clearest frequency for device operation.
ptmp-step6

What are good signal levels ?

Recommended signal level range for optimal performance is from -35 to -60 dBm. Also link could work with lower modulations at -60 to -85 dBm signal levels.

CLI (Command Line Interface)

Command Line Interface Management

The CLI (Command Line Interface) software is a configuration shell for the DLB based device. CLI is an alternative way for configuring the device. It is not intended to be a main device managing method. Using the CLI, the operator can test authentication parameters, change the administrator’s password, reboot device, reset device to defaults, show the device configuration or view the device status.

All available key combinations in CLI mode are listed in the table below:

CLI keys

CLI Access

Use the SSH client application (eg., Putty ) to access the CLI of the WILI-S based device.

Make sure that SSH server is configured properly

Login

Enter the administrator login settings on the displayed command prompt.

Default administrator logon settings are:

  • User Name: admin
  • Password: admin01

login

Passwords will not appear on the screen for safety

After a successful login enter help command to get available list of CLI commands:

help

logined

List off all CLI commands:

logout
reboot
reset-to-defaults
ping <ip>
telnet <ip>
show config
save config
show gateway
set gateway <gateway>
set user <user> password <encrypted_password> 
show software version
shell
linktest [frames <packet count>] [pkt-size <packet size>] [sessions <session count>] [peer <peer number>] [ip <remote IP>]
set virtual-ap <interface>
no virtual-ap <interface>
show interface list
show interface <interface> mac
show interface <interface> ip
set interface <interface> ip <ip/subnet mask>
show interface <interface> wireless-mode
set interface <interface> wireless-mode <ap, ipoll-ap, repeater, station, statio n-auto-ipoll> [peer-mac <MAC>]
set interface <interface> wds <on, off>
show interface <interface> ssid
set interface <interface> ssid <ssid>
show interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
set interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
no interface <interface> ssid-broadcast
show interface <interface> security
set interface <interface> security <open, wep64, wep128, wpa-psk, wpa2-psk, wpa-ent, wpa2-ent>
        wep64 key <1,2,3,4> pass <pass>
        wpa-psk/wpa2-psk encr <tkip, aes, auto> pass <pass>
        wpa-ent/wpa2-ent encr <tkip, aes, auto> pass <pass> radius <radius ip> port <radius port>
show interface <interface> ieee-mode
set interface <interface> ieee-mode <11a, 11b, 11bg, 11g, 11n, 11gn, 11an, 11bgn, 11n5>
show interface <interface> channel
set interface <interface> channel <channel>
set interface <interface> channel-auto <channel,channel,...>
set interface <interface> txpower <txpower>
set interface <interface> up
set interface <interface> down
show interface <interface> peers
show interface <interface> vlan-to-ssid
set interface <interface> vlan-to-ssid <vlan id>
no interface <interface> vlan-to-ssid <vlan id>
set interface <interface> vlan <vlan id>
no interface <interface> vlan <vlan id>
 Examples of how to use CLI commands:

To change wireless security, type command and press enter:

 set interface ra0 security open

To check list of stations connected to the radio, type command and press enter::

show interface ra0 peers

LCIpeers

To check the current SSID on the radio, type command and press enter::

show interface ra0 ssid

CLIcommand

Type logout to leave the CLI mode:

logout

How to connect single polarization antenna to MiMo device

SISO antenna should be connected to the main N connector which is marked as V polarization.

sisoantenna1

Main N connector is on the opposite side of led RSSI indicators

On secondary N connector 50 ohm terminator should be mounted.

In the device wireless configuration section select SISO 1×1 mode.

sisoconf

QoS on Deliberant APC series devices

QoS in detail

Starting from x.95 firmware release, Deliberant APC series received QoS functionality for iPoll protocol as a major improvement in quality control for different kinds of traffic. QoS implementation allows setting different percentage of total throughput for 4 different traffic types.  The process places the data into 4 queues which are then processed based on their priority level. The prioritization policy is strict, which means that higher priority data is sent first and lower priority is sent afterwards. Packets are prioritized by VLAN/CoS (layer 2) or IP/ToS/DSCP (layer 3) marks. QoS will allow Deliberant’s customers to provide higher quality services for multiple types of traffic (data, voice, video, etc.) on the same network.

QoS

 

Figure 1. QoS graph

The QoS can be controlled by using three handles for different kind of traffic: Voice, Video and Best effort. Voice traffic has the highest priority and always will be added to queue firstly.  It’s worth to note, that background traffic which is by default without priority (priority 0)  is adjusted according to your preference for other kinds of traffic. The background traffic margin is controlled by algorithm which takes into account both currently connected CPEs to the Access Point as well as the current link capacity. The algorithm also adjust the values over time due to changing environment as well as user increase or decrease probability. The main controlling window for users to select their preferences is displayed in the picture below:

QoSv2

Figure 2. QoS control window

The QoS is controlled on the Access Point side and after that the settings are distributed to all CPEs which are connected to the Access Point, so the QoS is operating at both sides as well as controlling all incoming traffic.

AutoBA (Auto Block-Ack)

addba

Block Acknowledgements (BLOCK ACK)
• Rather than sending an individual acknowledge following each data frame, 802.11n introduces the technique of confirming a burst of up to 64 frames with a single Block ACK (BA) frame
• The Block ACK even contains a bitmap to selectively acknowledge individual frames of a burst (comparable to selective acknowledges of TCP)
• The use of combined acknowledges can be requested by sending a Block ACK Request(BAR)
• The Block-ACK options are negotiated and confirmed with ‘Action’ frames defined in 802.11e (WLAN QoS)

a-mpdu

 

Usage: AutoBA by default should be enabled, the only case when AutoBA should be disabled is when seeing performance decrease or stability with smart phones.

 

Sensitivity and Noise Balance

Sensitivity and Noise Balance

This slider lets to balance between sensitivity and noise immunity. That means if you decrease value device would be more sensitive and automatically it would detects lower signal but also interference increases automatically. If you will increase this value it would not detect so much interference and noise but detects only the main signal. If you want to increase the value the main signal should be around -50-60 to not loose connection.

 

sensitivity noise

How to reset to defaults via Ping

Devices missing reset to factory defaults settings button (or due to housing button is not accessible without disassembling the housing) need a process to allow easy reset to factory defaults.

During startup of a device, when drivers of ethernet interfaces are loaded, the discovery daemon is started. The daemon suspends startup process for 3 seconds and waits for ICMP “echo request” packet of length 369 bytes. If packet received, the discovery daemon resets the device to default configuration.

It is recommended to use a simple switch (without routing) because Windows loses connection with device during the device reboot.

Steps to reset to default settings (for linux users):

Step 1. Power off the device.

Step 2. Obtain the device MAC address.

Step 3. Connect a PC to the same physical subnet as the device. (Note, it is usually easier to use a switch between the radio and the computer)

Step 4. Execute ‘arp -s’ command to assign the IP address (IP address should be from the same subnet as PC) to the device MAC address:

arp -s <IP address to assign> <device MAC address>

Step 5. Start pinging the device:

ping <IP address> -s 369

for windows users:

ping <IP address> -l 369 -t -w 200

Run CMD comand-line as administrator

Step 6. Power up device and wait about 1 minute or more (depends from device hardware).

Step 7. Stop pinging the device, and let the device boot as usual. Device should come back with defaults settings.

Old firmware upgrade

Introduction

There may be cases where it is beneficial or even necessary to update the firmware on a device without using the web browser. It is possible to update firmware by using SSH and using the fwupdate command. This wiki is a walkthrough of getting the image on the device, and then flashing it.

Getting the Image on the Device

The first step of flashing an image in shell is getting the firmware image on the device. There are two easy ways to do this, SFTP the image to the device, or use wget from the device to download the image from an external source.

Windows instructions

Step 1. Run WinSCP program. In the window fill the following lines:

Host name – device IP address (default 192.168.2.66)
Username – admin
Password – device login password (default admin01)
Press Login to initiate SSH connection with the device.

scp

Note: after pressing Login, warning message may appear. To continue login process press Yes

warning

Step 2. In the newly appeared window, go to the TMP directory. Then copy fwupdate.bin file to TMP directory.

3.1

Step 3. Run PuTTY program. In the Host Name line type device IP address and press Open.

4

Note: after pressing Open, warning message may appear. To continue login process press Yes.

5

Step 4. In the appeared window type username admin and password.

Username – admin
Password – device login password (default admin01)

6

 Step 5. Type command “shell” and press enter. Now you are ready to start FW upgrade process

7

Step 6. Navigate to the /tmp directory

cd /tmp

8

Step 7. Rename previously uploaded file to “fwupdate.bin”

mv DLB-CPE_24.v5.23.20642.080822.164518.img fwupdate.bin

9

Step 8. Type command “fwupdate –m” to start firmware upgrade process.

fwupdate -m

10

Do not power off device during the firmware upgrade process.

 Step 9. Successful upgrade process start is confirmed with message

/sbin/fwupdate: About to run firmware update

11

Step 10. After firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping at its configured IP address.

Linux Instructions

Download latest firmware and open Terminal.

Step 1. Rename downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin.

mv DLB_APC-5M.FWBD-0100.v5.94-2.rt2880.Deliberant.APC.en_US.47825.130819.212805_Deliberant.5.94-2.47839.FWBD-0100.cfg.img fwupdate.bin

Step 2. Copy firmware image to the device /tmp directory.

scp /home/fwupdate.bin admin@192.168.2.66:/tmp

Step 3. Login to the device via ssh.

ssh admin@192.168.2.66

Username – admin

Password – device login password (default admin01)

Step 4. Type command “shell” and press enter.

shell

Step 5. Type command “fwupdate –m” to start firmware upgrade process.

fwupdate -m
Do not power off device during the firmware upgrade process.

Step 6. After firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping at its configured IP address.

 

MTU size

APC 5M V2 series products supports up to 3790 bytes packet size without any external configuration.
APC 5M series supports up to 1532 bytes packet size without any external configuration.

APC 2M series products supports up to 1532 bytes packet size without any external configuration.

Firmware recovery via TFTP

Introduction

Starting firmware version 5.93 DLB APC devices are equipped with firmware recovery functionality. Only newly purchased products with firmware 5.93 and later will have firmware recovery via TFTP functionality (APC upgrade from older version to 5.93 will not add recovery feature).

Since 5.94-6 firmware, the recovery feature is brought by a firmware upgrade. This applies only to APC 5M V2 and 2M series.

Contact our support team (support@deliberant.com) in order to know does your APC unit maintains firmware recovery via TFTP.

The products that may need firmware recovery procedure:

  • DLB APC 2M series
  • DLB APC 5M V2 series

Other new products (APC Propeller, APC Button, APC ECHO 5) has dual firmware images, thus is very difficult to damage both firmwares.

When recovery is required?

Recovery is required when the firmware in a device flash memory becomes corrupted. This happens when the device is powered off during the firmware upgrade (e.g. power cuts, cable problem, etc). When device cannot boot, it goes to recovery mode.

If device is not accessible via web, no ping respond and Reset tool does not find the device, follow the firmware recovery procedure.

Firmware recovery via TFTP procedure

Get, install and run TFTP server on your PC.
Tftpd 32 for Windows:

http://tftpd32.jounin.net

Tftpd-hpa for Linux:
Use command from Linux shell

 sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa

Step 2. Download the newest appropriate firmware from Deliberant website

http://www.deliberant.com/downloads

Step 3. Rename downloaded firmware to fwupdate.bin and put it on TFTP server directory.

It’s important to change the file extension from .img to .bin, otherwise the device will not download the file from TFTP server.

Step 4. Power off the device.

Step 5. Connect the device to PC with cable directly or through the switch.

Step 6. Set PC network adapter IP address to 192.168.2.1 (that must be TFTP server address).

Tftp-1

Step 7. Power on the device. If everything is configured correctly, TFTP server will indicate about firmware transfer.

Tftp-2

Step 8. Wait up to 5 minutes till firmware is flashed properly.

Do not power off device during the firmware upgrade process.

Step 9. After firmware recovery is complete, the device should respond to a ping at its configured IP address.

During the firmware recovery all device’s system configuration will be preserved, thus there is no need to reset device to defaults.

11n max users support

All APC series products which are running on Access Point (Auto WDS) mode supports max 127 Cpes.

Recommended max number of Cpes is 70.

Ipoll max cpe support

All APC series products which are running on Access Point Ipoll mode supports max 127 stations.

Recommended max number of stations are 70.